The Nahuatl Learning Environment is a long-term project on Nahuatl language and culture in the Balsas River Valley of central Guerrero, Mexico. The project director is Jonathan D. Amith



Generous support was provided by the U.S. Department of Education, International Research and Studies Program (2001; grant P017A010051 for 2002-3), for the preparation of the online dictionary and sound files. The preparation of sound files was also supported by a Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerica Studies grant "A cultural and pedagogical lexicography of modern Nahuatl" (2001). Continuing support for development of pedagogical tools for teaching Nahuatl has been provided by Yale University, Council on Latin American and Iberian Studies and the University of Chicago, Center for Latin American Studies, both through their respective Title VI National Resource Center programs for Latin America, funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Corpus material development (both digital recording and transcription) has been supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0504164 (2005-8) and by the institutions listed in the following paragraph.

Educational and outreach work in Nahuatl communities, particularly the development of material that for use in bilingual schools and the training of native speakers in language documentation activities in San Agustín Oapan, Ameyaltepec, and neighboring villages has been supported by two Ford Foundation grants: "Nahuatl Language Documentation and Literacy" (2002) and "Community and School Outreach for Nahuatl Education and Literacy." Initial outreach activities among native speakers was supported by the Fideicomiso para la Cultura México/USA for the "Nahuatl Transcultural Learning Project" (2001).

Ethnobotanical work was first supported by the Hewlett Foundation, through the University of Chicago Center for Latin American Studies (2000-3). Subsequent work has been supported by a National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship (2002) and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0504164 (2005-8). The Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerica Studies has supported work in ethnobotany and zoology under the grant "Nahuatl Cultural Encyclopedia: Botany and Zoology" (2004).

Beside itsinstitutional support, the Linguistic Data Consortium, University of Pennsylvania, has included work on Nahuatl in two grants. The first was a National Science Foundation grant to Steven Bird for the development of Hyperlex2 (a precursor of JLex, the program now used to construct the lexicon used on this site). Through this work the initial Website was developed and the headwords recorded and segmented. Subsequently, funds from a U.S. Department of Education, International Research and Studies Program grant to the Linguistic Data Consortium (P017A050040, "Teaching and Learning Linguistically Complex Languages", 2005) has been applied to developing a Nahuatl corpus, morphological transducer, and graphical interface for text annotation.



The Linguistic Data Consortium, University of Pennsylvania, has provided extremely strong support to this project, contributing funds, computational and technical support, server space, and constant encouragement. Particular thanks are due to Steven Bird, without who's efforts and support this project could not have advanced. Mark Liberman and Chris Cieri were likewise instrumental in making my one-year stay at the LDC fruitful and enjoyable. At the LDC David Graff, Kazuaki Maeda, Andy Cole, and Kevin Walker were helpful beyond the call of duty. To all these individuals goes my sincere appreciation.

The Yale Intensive Nahuatl Summer Language Institute has been greatly helped by the strong support of the Yale Council on Latin American and Iberian Studies, Yale Summer Programs, and the University of Chicago Center for Latin Americann Studies, all of which have contributed financial and administrative resources not only to the Nahuatl Summer Language Institute, but to the development of the learning tools that are here presented. Beatriz Riefkohl and Gil Joseph at Yale's CLAIS have been overly supportive since the Summer Institute first began as have the various directors and administrators of Chicago's comparable program, particularly Claudio Lomnitz and Kelly Gallagher. At Yale Summer Programs my thanks are to the present director, Bill Whobrey and to Donna McGuire.

México-Norte has provided excellent administrative support for the Ford Foundation and encouragement for the continuing effort to work with indigenous communities in Mexico on language and cultural documentation as well as community-based education. Greta de León, executive director of México-Norte, has made the acceptance of the Ford Foundation grant possible. Bill Merrill's work in the Tarahumara has provided a constant inspiration for the work I am undertaking here.



My greatest debt is to the many individuals in Ameyaltepec, San Agustín Oapan, and neighboring villages who have taught me their language over many years. During my initial stay in Ameyaltepec my principal teachers were Pánfilo Lorenzo, Luis Lucena, and Gabriel de la Cruz, all deceased. Living space was lent to me by Juan Celedonio and Honorio Jiménez. In Oapan my teacher has been Florencia Marcelino. Victórico Jiménez generously delayed moving into his house for over a year when I lived there.

The sound recordings of headwords linked to this dictionary were made by Florencia Marcelino and her husband Inocencio Jiménez (both of Oapan) and by Cristino Flores (Ameyaltepec).



The Ford Foundation has supported the development of a Nahuatl Language Documentation and Literacy Workshop. Participants in this workshop include Inocencio Díaz (Ameyaltepec), Roberto Mauricio (Oapan), Emiliana Domínguez (Oapan), and Jeremías Cabrera. At different times Uriel Guerrero and Floresta Domínguez also participated.



Jonthan Dick was the major developer of the computational infrastructure for the Nahuatl Learning Environment: Lexicon. This includes a program designed to convert Shoebox files (exported to XML) to MySQL and then to query the database and produce the output that appears on the screen. His help has been invaluable.He also designed the XSLT templates for the display of the XML database. Mike Maxwell has produced the morphological transducer (using the Xerox Finite State Toolkit) that generates inflectional paradigms and parsers words. These projects are ongoing.

The home page, the head pages for the Lexicon, Grammar, and Encyclopedia; and the Botany & Zoology page were designed by Jun Lee when he was a graduate student at Yale University. They have only been slightly altered as the overall content changes. An attempt has been made to continue his excellent design ideas throughout the NLE. The Botany Family Index page and subsequent pages in this section are being designed by Jennifer Fairman in part on the basis of ideas suggested by Jun Lee's original designs for the higher levels and J. Amith's input in art selection. The Stories section of the NLE : Encyclopedia was designed by J. Amith.



Artwork is credited on the individual pages.



The photographs, unless otherwise indicated, are by Jonathan Amith. No photographs may be used for commercial purposes.



An initial collection was carried out from 15 Sept. to 15 Oct. 2001. The Nahuatl language consultants during this period were Silvestre Pantaleón (Oapan), Asención Marcelo (San Juan Tetelcingo), and Inocencio Díaz and Honorio de la Rosa (Ameyaltepec). The field botanists were Eduardo Domínguez and Geoff Hall. A subsquent field session was carried out in August 2003 with the botanist Jorge Rojas. Nahuatl consultants were Artimio Domínguez, Joaquín Herrera, Roberto Mauricio, Avelino Nava, and Silvestre Pantaleón (all of Oapan) and Faustino Claudio, Inocencio Díaz, Faustino Claudio, and Honorio de la Rosa (all of Ameyaltepec). Nelly Diego of the Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, is the expert on Guerrero flora and has been a constant help throughout the botany project. Determinations of species were provided by the following individuals: Pedro Acevedo (Smithsonian, Sapindaceae); Christiane Anderson (U. Michigan, Malpighiaceae: Galphimia); William Anderson (U. Michigan, Malpighiaceae); L. Aragón and A. Carillo (COTECOCA, Poaceae) Sandy Atkins (Kew, Verbenaceae); Dan Austin (Florida Atlantic University and The Desert Museum, Colvolvulaceae); Susan Barber (U. Oklahoma, Verbenaceae); Paul Berry (U. of Wisconsin, Euphorbiaceae); C. C. Berg (Oslo, Moraceae, Urticaceae); Attila Borhidi (UNAM, Rubiaceae); Manuel Castro (UNAM, Colvolvulaceae); Robert Bye (UNAM, Solanaceae); Robert W. Cruden (University of Iowa, Iriridaceae and Alliaceae); R. Cruz (UNAM, Leguminosae); Douglas Daly (NYBG, Burseraceae); Tom Daniels (California Institute of Science, Acanthaceae); Nelly Diego (UNAM, Apocynaceae, Bombacaceae, Cyperaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, and others); Valentina Diego-Escobar (UNAM, Mimosaceae); Eduardo Domínguez (UNAM, various); V. Diego-Escobar (UNAM, Mimosaceae); Larry Dorr (Smithsonian, Sterculiaceae); Vern Durkee (Cornell, Acanthaceae); Robert Faden (Smithsonian, Commelinaceae); G. Flores (UNAM, Caesalpiniaceae); M. Flores (UAM, Bromeliaceae); Rosa María Fonseca (UNAM, Acanthaceae, Anacardiaceae, Celastraceae, Cuscutaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Fouquieriaceae, Hernandiaceae, Loasaceae, Onagraceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, Urticaceae); Paul Fryxell (U. Texas, Austin, Bombacaceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae); Abisaí García (UNAM, Agavaceae); Beatriz González (UNAM, Asteraceae and Aristolochiaceae); Socorro González (Univ. Durango, Cyperaceae, gen. Eleocharis), María Goreti Campos-Ríos (Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, Boraginaceae); Shirley Graham (MOBOT, Lythraceae); Martha Gual (UNAM, Tiliaceae); Ray Harley (Kew, Lamiaceae); Andrew Henderson (NYBG, Aracaceae); Colin Hughes (Oxford, Leguminosea: Leucaena); Hugh Iltis (U. of Wisconsin, Capparaceae); Robert Kiger (Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Papaveraceae); Jaime Jiménez (UNAM, Euphorbiaceae); Larry Kelly (NYBG, Aristolochiaceae); Job Kuijt (Univ. of Victoria, Loranthaceae); André Laurênio de Melo (Univ. Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Euphorbiaceae: Sebastiania); (Ron Liesner (MBOT, Flacourtiaceae, Rhamnaceae, Ulmaceae); Esther León Velasco (UNAM, Malpighiaceae); Gwilym Lewis (Kew, Leguminosea: Caesalpinioideae); Lúcia Lohmann (MBOT, Bignoniaceae); Julio Lombardi (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Vitaceae); David Lorence (NTBG, Rubiaceae); Lucio Lozada (UNAM, Asclepiadaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Caricaceae, Hernandiaceae, Loranthaceae, Meliaceae, Moringaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Opiliaceae, Passifloraceae, Polygonaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, Sterculiaceae, Zygophyllaceae); Harry Luther (Bromeliad Identification Center, Bromeliaceae); John MacDougal (MBot, Passifloraceae); D. Martínez-Bernal (UNAM, Mimosa, gen.); Martha Martínez (UNAM, Euphorbiacea); Zenaida Martínez Torres (UNAM, Bignoniaceae); Andrew McDonald (U. Texas, Colvolvulaceae); Rosalinda Medina Flores (UNAM, Burseraceae); John Mickel (NYBG, Pteridaceae); John Mitchell (NYBG, Anacardiaceae); Robbin Moran (NYBG, Pteridaceae); Lytton Musselman (Old Dominion University, Cuscutaceae); Cecilia Navarro (UNAM, Lythraceae); Michael Nee (NYBG, Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae); Helga Ochotorena-Booth (UNAM, Fabaceae); José Panero (U. Texas, Asteraceae); Terry Pennington (Kew, Sapotaceae, Meliaceae); Susana Peralta (UNAM, Verbenaceae); Paul Peterson (Smithsonian Institution, Poaceae); Armando Ponce (UNAM, Malvaceae); Duncan Porter (Virginia Tech, Zygophyllaceae); Lucen Raz (NYBG, Dioscoreaceae); Heimo Rainer (Universität Wien, Annonaceae); (Lourdes Rico (Kew, Leguminosae); Jorge Fernando Rojas Gutierrez (UNAM, Asteraceae, Scrophulariaceae); Leia Scheinvar (UNAM, Cactaceae); Beryl Simpson (U. Texas, Krameriaceae); Mario Sousa (UNAM, Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae, Mimosaceae); Richard Spellenberg (NMSU, Nyctaginaceae); Warren Stevens (MBOT, Asclepiadaceae); Charlotte Taylor (MBOT, Rubiaceae); Leticia Torres-Colín (UNAM, Fabaceae); Gordon Tucker (Cyperaceae); Susana Valencia (UNAM, Fagaceae: Quercus); Cássio van den Berg (Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Orchidaceae); Grady Webster (Univ. California, Davis, Euphorbiaceae); and Ernesto Velázquez (UNAM, Pteridaceae, Selaginellaceae).



Initial identifications were carried out with specimens in the Museo Zoológico, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, with Nahuatl consultants Roberto Mauricio and Epifanio Ramírez (Oapan) and Cristino Flores and Honorio de la Rosa (Ameyaltepec). Adolfo Navarro, an expert on Guerrero avefauna, organized the sessions and selected from the collection those specimens most likely to be found in the Balsas River valley. Subsequently field identifications were made with a team from the UNAM and, subsequently, by Manuel Grosselet.



Identification of approximately 120 insect specimens is being coordinated by Alonso García Aldretete, an entomologist at the Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.